Bullish New Hampshire to Mount Washington


1. Mount Washington:

If the White Mountains wore the crown, it would look like Mount Washington, the highest peak in New Hampshire, New England and the north-east to gain altitude to 628 feet. However, the greater the obstacle, the more it seems, its appeal, and it is this philosophy served as its a magnet for hikers, skiers and prystavalnikav, that is, for those who sought to overcome it by road and rail. all in the spirit of conquest "reaching the top."

Originally the designation "Agiohuki" – Indian word for "Home of the Great Spirit," "the place of the forest spirit" and "the place of the spirit of the storm" – is seen as a sublime work of precisely this is why the deity, "Hit-Manitos" and any climbing attempts were considered so blasphemous. However, Native Americans did not think and did not attempt to try.

Its obstacles can not be underestimated. Surrounded by 5.372-fold Monroe grief, sorrow 5.716-foot Jefferson and 5.533-foot clay worse, by the grief of Washington, melange metaphorical rocks and the characteristic ancient Alpine glacier carved gullies. The range of the president and his prehistoric continental ice sheet that covers the vegetation left on his tree line, there are only about the Arctic regions of Labrador. Its slopes running down several rivers, including Ammunosuk, Dry, rocky branch, new, Cutler and Peabody.

Temperatures below zero for more than 65 days per year, provides the vertex of permafrost and the wind speed of hurricane winds not less than 75 km / h it kills more than half of the winter days. Its lowest temperature was -49 degrees Fahrenheit, and the highest wind speed – 231 miles / h, recorded at the summit of 12 April 1934.

However, none of those who wish summits. The original path has been constrained in 1642, when the Darby Field with two Indian guides made the first recorded ascent and the first scientific mission – Expedition Belknap-Cutler – took place more than a century later, in 1784, when it was made to measure and the collection of alpine plants.

It renamed Mount Washington after the then General George Washington, he was also targeted by Colonel George Gibbs, a mineral that has cleared its first road in 1809, but has since made several consecutive rises.

A decade later, creating their own way, which overcame the summit, Abel and Ethan Allen Crawford, father and son, and handed over to his brother Thomas, who has greatly improved it between 1838 and 1840. By expanding it and making it suitable for negotiations on horseback. Despite the fact that it currently has no equestrian use, it remains Krolfardskim level and maintained national forest White Mountain.

Each "step up" brought these patches to new layers, as flora and fauna reflect the climatic conditions associated with a rise associated with the temperature, which drops three degrees for every 1,000 feet, and the wind and precipitation, which increases disproportionately.

For example, from 2000 to 2500 feet, for example, deciduous tree species – American beech, sugar maple, yellow birch, white ash, white pine, red maple, red spruce, eastern hemlock, and is dominated by red oak, becoming Spruce and fir forests. balm and red varieties, up to 4000 feet.

As if fed, balsam fir, creating its own system, lagged at about 4,500 feet, yielding a short transition or Krummholts area, up to 4800 feet, which twisted and tilted trees mean the end of the forest and the beginning of the alpine region. Last discussed above tree line, no longer able to support the growth of trees due to heavy rains, snow and fierce winds and temperatures unbearable, and instead hatches reliable nizistyya plants.

There are two large plateau over 5000 feet: Bigelovski grass, alpine meadow with sedge Arctic and Alpine meadow, rich as its name implies, with alpine wildflowers.

Peak – is a rocky, barren, windy aircraft, type of which the other peaks of the Presidential Range is admired when the clouds permit.

To take up the challenge, which seems to offer Mount Washington, visitors have three main ways: by foot, road or railway.

2. STOP:

Most of the problems faced by the early climb, remain before the modern tourists and climbers. Due to the serious & # 39; oznastsi mountain out & # 39; I and variability, the season for them is relatively short, from Memorial Day to Columbus, after that time, frequent mud, snow and ice. Winter accumulations, which are combined with the cold temperatures, maximum wind and snow accumulations of deep and the least amount of daylight should try only the most suitable, trained, experienced and secured. Gullies climbers subjected to possible avalanche, and the top is usually wrapped in a cloud.

Indeed, the sign that is located on the mountain, warns: "Stay in the area ahead has the worst out & # 39; e in America, many of them died from exposure, even in summer turned back when the weather & # 39; e bad!…"

Trails var & # 39; iruyutstsa depending on the length of the gain adjustment, the gradient of gravity and obstacles and control spectrum from short trips at low levels to full elevation at the top. Of the latter, there are several.

For example, from the west, Ammunosuk river trail that passes waterfalls, clouds, lakes, and mountain lodge Appalatskaga club offers high elevation 3,800 feet and spans 9.2 miles round trip path. Trail Jewell, Trag Gulfside and Trinity Heights Connector with a 100-foot gain height offers a round trip within ten miles, which initially goes along the western ridge of Mount Clay before lead to Mount Washington and crosses like a river Ammunosuk and spiral rail.

There are two approaches to the east, both of which are available from 16 in Pinkham Notch. First, Tuckerman Ravine Trail, offers a 450-foot elevation and the rise of 8.4 miles. Because of their average grades, he is the most popular. The second, which also includes a bright trail Tukermana and road Boat spurs and the way Davis and Crawford, entails a rise in the height of 4300 feet. The length of 10.6 miles and it rougher and longer than the previous route, but also much more colorful.

Glen Trail Boulder, in combination with traces of Davis and Crawford, provides Western approach, again along the route 16, and carries a 4400-foot lifting height during its circular road for the 11.4 miles.

From the north-east the trail of the Great Bay and the Gulf of Galfsayda, with built-in Trinity heights, penetrate into the deep valley of the Great an isolated backwater and cross the 1600 meter high rocky parent contribution, giving rise to an altitude of 5000 feet and the longest round trip distance of 15.8 miles.

3. Road

Modern sport, rock climbing, watching and imitating need the last day to get to the top of Mount Washington, but was soon offered a trail designed for negotiations on equestrian and van. Abel Crawford, reached the summit on horseback in 1840, paved the way, at least in the idea.

Access to the top of the mountain – it's exactly what it is diluted in a railroad base to it. To ensure the overland route for transportation of wheat from Montreal to Portland, in 1851, the railway has paved the railroad in the Atlantic and St. Lawrence (later Grand highway) to carry passengers in Jorge, New Hampshire. Quickly assessing the tourism potential of the area, he has invested in infrastructure, including the hotel Alpine House, the road to the Pinkham Notch and Glen Bridle top of the peak, which rose at the foot of the First House Glen.

But the desire to win the Mount Washington to impose height provided the impetus for the road, which could support the equestrian tourist-transpartsiruyuchyh omnibuses, and the peak of the hotel in which they are placed, and the governor Noah Martin handed the chart to the mountain. Washington Road Company July 1, 1853 was held vasmimilyutnay artery from the house to the top of the Glen. David O. Macomber Middleton, New Hampshire, has been appointed project manager.

However, not all visions are transferred into reality. Construction in damatornyya and relatively primitive times was terrible. Living in tents and mounds and devote ten to twelve hours a day, workers often were hoping for their own force and brute force to transport the supplies to the place with vasmimilnay distance, relying on a horse or a cow, spreading his hands. explosive holes, filling them with a black powder, and then removing explosion obtained gravel and stones.

However, by the time when the project has reached its mid-point in 1856, funding has been exhausted, as the men who carried out this work.

Assuming that the project in three years, the newly created art company "Mount Washington" to finish the artery, and the Korea-road Mount Washington – the country's first tourist attraction – was officially opened at a ceremony August 8, 1861 earned the title of many of them was welcome, especially Joseph Thompson, the owner of the Glen house, and Colonel John Hitchcock, owner of alpine houses.

Three weeks prior to the completion of the road ascending horse carriages, and even discussed the existing boulders near its end.

Rating road which confirms its concept gradually increased as the number of first exploits committed by it. For example, three members of the Dartmouth vygulnyh club made the first ski ascent in 1913. They were followed by the first team of Huskies, who reached the summit in 1926. The cars four or six horses that citizens from nine to 12 years, as many as 100 passengers transported daily.

But, although the road itself has not changed, its use did when Frylan O. Stanley previously made the first steam engine, climbing on them in two hours, ten minutes, 31 August 1899, and it paved the way for the first car with petrol engine moved to the movement on lines that existed alterations from the original "coaches" to the end "Roads".

The graphic line that reflects the annual number of vehicles that use it, as cool and grow as the mountain: 3,100 in 1935, 6,600 in 1955, 12,800 in 1961, and today more than 45 000.

Modern motorists can "take the road" as it touts to reach it from the route 16 in Pinghu, Netzsch on the eastern side of the mountain. Lodge "Great Glen" to the restaurant for breakfast and dinner and an adjacent museum Red barn Douglas A. Philbrook is based on the road. Last, the last of the many horses and hay, which were neodymium & # 39; emnay part of what was then the staging of the road wheel, complements and contains a collection of restored cars, trucks, carts and cars that once left their imprints. the path up the mountain.

The basic fee for entrance to the highway road includes the car, its driver, audio cassette and landscape tour on CD, and the famous "This car climbed Mount Washington" bumper stickers with separate and additional payments for extra adults and / or children motorcycles.

Excursions to vans, including comments and input to the Observatory Museum Mount Washington Summit, lasts 90 minutes, the third of the time at the top, while the seasonal and regular tours entail conducted at dawn in the evening. As well as the winter, "SnowCoach" tours are offered on the ski vehicles in this case.

Intermodal lifts that are offered during the period from late May to early October, allows tourists to travel in one direction on foot and the other on a minibus, with stop route tourist routes based on the motorways, head of the Greater Bay train and Mountain Club Appalachia "Notham Camp Pinkham" .

Drivers and native environment respectively produce ever-changing views out & # 39; I & Weather & # 39; I, as the car negotiates the winding, climbing, partly paved and partly bombarded with a mountain road, which once bore the imprint of horses & # 39; hoof.

Passing through the ravine on the mountain on the east side, 7.6 miles Village Auto Road Mount Washington rises from 1543 feet to 6288, increasing the height ranges from 594 to 880 feet per mile, passing the park "Two miles"; bridges Mycko, Jenny Lind and Twin; Half-way house and the Horn Park; and the negotiation of bends, and a five-point level. Moving north, it expands and begins to climb the ridge clearly Chander ridge, passing Kreguey Spring Park Parade miles and rising to six miles.

4. Railway:

By days of motorized pendulum Mount Washington turned to the rear side and to another method of sealing a sharp – rack – each process step secured another step towards imposing monolith of New Hampshire.

Its catalyst – once again proving the validity of the philosophy "to turn pain into purpose" – has been a rise, which Sylvester Marsh, Kemptan, New Hampshire, native and veteran of the rich meat packaging Chicago, made in 1852, a hard snowstorm. He was forced to spend the night on the mountain, nearly succumbing to the arctic temperatures and promising to come back and come up with a quick, convenient, private, and secure means of its recovery.

Mechanical thinking he already had considerable experience in patents for patents of agricultural machinery, such as conveyor belts and grain drier and therefore referred the background in the rail system, which technology would enable the locomotive and at least one carriage to negotiate, to rise. , And for conventional rail is still the highest score are inappropriate.

Developing a plan of the rail system of horizontal screws, he filed a patent for his August 24, 1858, but the next month the New Hampshire law was rejected, saying that between 1836 and 1849 has already received five years of similar materials. and laughs at the idea with today's well-known statement that the March "can also build a railway to the moon."

To revoke the amendment, he filed an application for amendment within three years, August 3, and it was quickly satisfied.

capabilities of the system lifting the secret was a small toothed wheel located below the engine, 19 teeth which would taste in cylindrical crossbar of the central track, pulling him and his car up the mountain, like a tiny hand that rattled the bars on the rack, which, depending on its section was located somewhere between horizontal and vertical, and therefore formed a ladder corner. The engine itself could provide a driving force, and traditional guides could manage conventional wheels.

railways system "Mount Washington" was established with an initial capital of $ 20 000. The march will serve as President and construction agent.

After several surveys of the mountains, it was decided to adhere to the route, which paved the Ethan Allen Crawford in 1821 in the western part of the mountain and start laying track in its base in Ammunosuk River. However, access to it was hardly an obstacle. The old forest road, extended by FAB & # 39 Station; Yang, stopped half a mile from the building site and the rest of the distance was densely forested.

Rudimentary way that has gone oxen, eventually let the men get to building log homes builders. Timber had to be cut down.

Spiral road consisted of a 12-foot sections, or "leaning" and progressed in the number "1" on the basis to "1200" at the summit.

Each component of the construction process, which began in May 1866, made possible outcome. Sam Marsh, for example, built the first test track with 40 rods. The first locomotive, which is still in the sections, was reaching for him, but for him the vehicle platform for the transport of building materials materials.

Self-powered locomotive was geared without cables and had one pair of cylinders and the drive wheels. Although it was called "Hero", its vertical, pepper bottle with pepper that resembles the boiler, quickly earned the nickname "Perpersas".

August 29, 1866 by clicking on the passenger car flat wagon, he successfully demonstrated the concept of a spiral structure, and construction capabilities and has attracted the necessary additional investments from the originally skeptical of railway companies.

Two years later, on August 14, the world's first voyage cog railway train reached the top of the summit after a construction project of 139 500, which was "furious ladder". The second cool – after the one in Switzerland – and today it is both the oldest and the National Historic Site.

Access to the train railway transmission has been improved in July 1876, when the railway line Belaya Gorka implemented spaced line from the station FAB & # 39; yang to her base.

In addition to "Peppersasa" he began service with three other vertically configured boilers: Locomotive "George Stevenson", built in 1868, and "Atlas" and "cloud", which followed two years later.

The first 40 years, these trees and 18 other engines in the fleet used charcoal, every climb requires tons and 1,000 liters of water. Four engines, introduced in 2003, on the & # 39; yadnovvayuchy original cogs of the 19th century and "green" technologies of the 21st century – the types of biodiesel and burning 16 to 18 gallons of fuel per trip.

Чыгуначная дарога Маунт-Вашынгтон, якая праходзіць па базавай дарозе шасці мілі, якая вядзе да яе па маршруце 302 побач са станцыяй Фаб'ян, прапануе трохгадзінныя кругавыя паездкі да саміту ў перыяд з мая па кастрычнік, час у верхняй частцы мяняецца ў залежнасці ад паравой або дызельны рухавік і аднагадзінныя паўгадзіны ў лістападзе і снежні.

У адрозненне ад аўтадарогі з усходняга боку, чыгуначная чыгуначная дарожка падымаецца з заходняга боку і, такім чынам, адкрывае віды і віды. Усе цягнікі адпраўляюцца і вяртаюцца на базавую станцыю Маршфілд, названую ў гонар вынаходніка чыгункі. Само дэпо прапануе браніраванне і прадастаўленне білетаў; рэстаран самаабслугоўвання, Каталана на Шрубе, з выдатным выглядам на пункт адпраўлення цягніка; крама сувеніраў; і Музей вінтоў.

Акрамя паказу фільма "Чыгуначная дарога да Месяца", апошні дае магчымасць зазірнуць у тэхналогію ранняга шрубкі. Напрыклад, кацёл 1908 г. пастаянна выкарыстоўваўся паравоз № 9, пабудаваны Амерыканскім лакаматыўным камбінатам, пакуль яго не замянілі сучасны кацёл Hodge Boiler Works, абсталяваны сучасным катлом у 1986 годзе. у перыяд з 1870 па 1920 год, чыгуначнікі дазволілі спусціцца па даўжыні каляіны менш чым за тры хвіліны. Раздзел кадра дэманструе, як зубчастае кола зубчастага колеса перамяшчаецца са стужкамі. Бюро зрубаў прапануе глыбокае ўяўленне пра жыццё Сільвестра-прамоўтэра, а таксама вынаходніка і будаўніка чыгункі. Чыгуначны магазін Mount Washington Cog абсталёўваў усе, акрамя аднаго з сямі лакаматываў, якія працуюць у цяперашні час, а кабіна і кацельныя ўчасткі ілюструюць іх будаўніцтва.

"Стары Пепперсас", першы рухавік, які рухаецца па чыгунцы ўверх па гары Вашынгтон і набывае славу Нацыянальнай інжынернай славутасці. Ён, зразумела, пабудаваны самім Маршам і транспартаванай на трасе ўчасткамі, ён важыць чатыры тоны, каштаваў 3000 долараў і мог перавозіць карысную нагрузку ў 60 пасажыраў. У цяперашні час на яе баку прадстаўлены літары "N. 1 Mt. WR". Яго знялі з службы пасля таго, як ён літаральна зносіўся і паддаўся механічнаму знясіленню.

Шырокая дарожка 4,8 фута (на паўтара цалі менш, чым у Амерыканскага стандартнага датчыка), пачынаючы з базавай станцыі 2700 футаў і ня пакладзеная на драўляную эстакаду, пралягае ў трох мілях, калі ўзыходзіць па вузкай лініі хрыбта паміж Аммуносуком і Буртавыя яры ў сярэднім 25-працэнтны, або 1320 футаў на міль, гатунак. Дзевяць яго крывых вар'іруюцца ў радыусе ад 497 да 945 футаў.

Усе цягнікі складаюцца з паравога або дызельнага паравоза, прымацаванага да задняй часткі драўлянага або металічнага пасажырскага вагона ў канфігурацыі штурхача, і, адцягнуўшыся ад стройнай платформы, амаль адразу перасякаюць раку Аммуносук, а потым пачынаюць паднімацца ўніз па ўзгорку Холадна-Спрынг, трэк з другім стромкім участкам.

Наступная арка направа, пры дапамозе сонечных батарэй, гідраўлічных перамыкачоў, абыходзячы танк Waumbek на вышыні 3800 футаў, альбо чакае сыходнага цягніка, каб ён мог прайсці яго па ўласнай бакавой трасе альбо папоўніцца вадой, калі гэта паравая машына.

Здалёк на правым баку знаходзіцца гарадскі лагер і хатка Апалачаў, а таксама некалькі пікаў Прэзідэнцкага хрыбта, у тым ліку Манро, Франклін, Эйзенхаўэр, Клінтан, Джэксан і Вебстэр.

Праходзячы па Доме на паўдарозе ў 4500 футаў, паравоз і машына зараз пераадольваюць лесвіцу Якава (клас лесвіцы Якава), клас якой дзівіць 37,41 працэнта (і робіць немагчымым праходжанне па машыне, не хапаючыся за яе. спінкі сядзення) і пераступае лінію дрэва.

Перасякаючы Апалачы сцяжыну, якая цягнецца ад Мэн да Джорджыі, цягнік набліжаецца да вяршыні, з левага боку адкрываецца від на яркую заліў Вялікага заліва і яго драматычны, 2000-футовы падзенне, на возера Спалдынг.

5. Саміт:

Збліжэнне мэтавых і горных мэтаў усіх турыстаў, вадзіцеляў і чыгуначнікаў – гэта вяршыня, размешчаная на тэрыторыі 59-гектарскага дзяржаўнага парку Маунт-Вашынгтон, які быў створаны ў 1971 годзе.

Вісты гэтага спустошанага, ветрападобнага самагону, калі яго не хаваюць воблака ці ападкі, з'яўляюцца часткай мэты ўздыму і ахопліваюць радыус 130 мілі. Бачныя чатыры штаты Нью-Гэмпшыр, Мэн, Вермонт і Нью-Ёрк, а таксама правінцыя Квебек у Канадзе і пробліск Атлантычнага акіяна. Праз Вялікі заліў знаходзяцца шматлікія вяршыні прэзыдэнцкага дыяпазону, такія як Джэфэрсан, Адамс і Мэдысан, і ўсе яны ніжэйшыя за гледача – як гэта часта бывае з самімі аблокамі – тлумачаць амэрыканскія індзейцы & # 39; вера ў тое, што ўзнёслае ўзвышанае становішча было выключным здабыткам Вялікага Духа.

За выключэннем Дзяржаўнага парку і дадатковых 60 гектараў прыватнай зямлі, большасць бачных гор належаць 725 000 гектараў нацыянальнага лесу Белай гары, самому нерасту чатырох буйных прытокаў ракі Новай Англіі.

Паслугі для наведвальнікаў размешчаны ў будынку Саміт Шэрман Адамс, чацвёртым і адзіным нетэтэльным домам на вышэйшым узроўні. Служба штаба Маунт-Вашынгтон, штаб-кватэра Маунт-Вашынгтон, пабудаваная ў 1980 годзе як неад'емная частка паўночнага схілу, мае кафетэрый, дзве крамы сувеніраў, пошту, музей і абсерваторыю Маунт-Вашынгтон, апошні з якіх з'яўляецца метэастанцыяй класа А для Бюро надвор'я ЗША.

Яшчэ адна бачная структура – гэта дом "Tip-Top". Пабудаваны ў 1853 годзе пры кошце 7000 долараў з каменя, узарванага з той самай гары, якая яго падтрымлівае, гатэль у 84 футы, шырынёй 28 футаў, узняўся з рубля, каб канкурыраваць з першым Домам Першага дома, які быў завершаны таго ж года. Пазней быў дададзены скатны дах, які змяшчае 17 малюсенькіх спальняў.

Закінуты на 35 гадоў, ён аднавіў сваё прызначэнне, калі Вялікі пажар 18 чэрвеня 1908 года разбурыў пасля гэтага пабудаваны, 91-пакаёвы Дом Другога Саміту. Сам дом "Tip-Top", які адрадзіўся і пераабсталяваны, стаў сямейным хостэлам на вяршыні гары на працягу сямі гадоў, пакуль у 1915 г. не быў пабудаваны заменны Саміт – у гэты час ён апусціў ахоўніка і стаў ахвярай пажару. .

Рэканструяваны і перакінуты ў дадатку да Дома Саміту, ён быў вызвалены ў 1968 годзе, перш чым аднаўляцца ў другі раз, у 1987 годзе, так што ён мог пачаць сваё трэцяе жыццё – на гэты раз як Нацыянальны гістарычны арыенцір.

Яшчэ адна важная структура – гэта сцэнічнае бюро Саміта, якое ў цяперашні час служыць крамай сувеніраў і крамай турыстаў. Размясціўшы абсерваторыю Маунт-Вашынгтон з 1932 па 1937 гг., 12 жніўня 1934 года гэта месца знаходжання ў свеце з найвышэйшай вымяранай хуткасцю ветру, 231 міль / ч, на што паказвае знешні знак, які абвяшчае "Найвышэйшы Тут быў зафіксаваны чалавек вецер – 231 міль / ч ".

На самай справе, 2888-футовым саміце можна дасягнуць, калі прайсці Кроўфардскі шлях, які быў упершыню закладзены ў 1819 годзе і таму лічыцца самай старой горнай пешаходнай сцежкай у Амерыцы.